Zyloric is indicated for the management of recurrent mixed calcium oxalate renal stones in the presence of hyperuricosuria, when fluid, dietary and similar measures have failed.
Dosage in Adults: Zyloric should be introduced at low dosage e.g. 100mg/day to reduce the risk of adverse reactions and increased only if the serum urate response is unsatisfactory. Extra caution should be exercised if renal function is poor (see Dosage in renal impairment). The following dosage schedules are suggested:
100 to 200 mg daily in mild conditions, 300 to 600 mg daily in moderately severe conditions, 700 to 900 mg daily in severe conditions.
If dosage on a mg/kg bodyweight basis is required, 2 to 10 mg/kg bodyweight/day should be used.
Dosage in children: Children under 15 years: 10 to 20 mg/kg bodyweight/day up to a maximum of 400 mg daily. Use in children is rarely indicated, except in malignant conditions (especially leukaemia) and certain enzyme disorders such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.
Dosage in the elderly: In the absence of specific data, the lowest dosage which produces satisfactory urate reduction should be used. Particular attention should be paid to advice in Dosage in renal impairment and Precautions and Warnings.
Dosage in renal impairment: Since allopurinol and its metabolites are excreted by the kidney, impaired renal function may lead to retention of the drug and/or its metabolites with consequent prolongation of plasma half-lives. In severe renal insufficiency, it may be advisable to use less than 100 mg per day or to use single doses of 100mg at longer intervals than one day.
If facilities are available to monitor plasma oxipurinol concentrations, the dose should be adjusted to maintain plasma oxipurinol levels below 100 micromol/litre (15.2 mg/litre).
Allopurinol and its metabolites are removed by renal dialysis. If dialysis is required two to three times a week consideration should be given to an alternative dosage schedule of 300-400 mg Zyloric immediately after each dialysis with none in the interim.
Dosage in hepatic impairment: Reduced doses should be used in patients with hepatic impairment. Periodic liver function tests are recommended during the early stages of therapy.
Treatment of high urate turnover conditions, e.g. neoplasia, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: It is advisable to correct existing hyperuricaemia and/or hyperuricosuria with Zyloric before starting cytotoxic therapy. It is important to ensure adequate hydration to maintain optimum diuresis and to attempt alkalinisation of urine to increase solubility of urinary urate/uric acid. Dosage of Zyloric should be at the lower end of the recommended dosage schedule.
If urate nephropathy or other pathology has compromised renal function, the advice given in Dosage in renal impairment should be followed.
These steps may reduce the risk of xanthine and/or oxipurinol deposition complicating the clinical situation. See also Drug Interactions And Adverse Reactions.
Monitoring Advice: The dosage should be adjusted by monitoring serum urate concentrations and urinary urate/uric acid levels at appropriate intervals.
Instructions for Use: Zyloric may be taken orally once a day after a meal. It is well tolerated, especially after food. Should the daily dosage exceed 300 mg and gastrointestinal intolerance be manifested, a divided doses regimen may be appropriate.
Zyloric should not be administered to individuals known to be hypersensitive to allopurinol or to any of the components of the formulation.
Zyloric should be withdrawn immediately when a skin rash or other evidence of sensitivity occurs. Reduced doses should be used in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. Patients under treatment for hypertension or cardiac insufficiency, for example with diuretics or ACE inhibitors, may have some concomitant impairment of renal function and allopurinol should be used with care in this group.
Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia per se is generally not considered an indication for use of Zyloric. Fluid and dietary modification with management of the underlying cause may correct the condition.
Acute gouty attacks: Allopurinol treatment should not be started until an acute attack of gout has completely subsided, as further attacks may be precipitated.
In the early stages of treatment with Zyloric, as with uricosuric agents, an acute attack of gouty arthritis may be precipitated. Therefore it is advisable to give prophylaxis with a suitable anti-inflammatory agent or colchicine for at least one month. The literature should be consulted for details of appropriate dosage and precautions and warnings.
If acute attacks develop in patients receiving allopurinol, treatment should continue at the same dosage while the acute attack is treated with a suitable anti-inflammatory agent.
Xanthine deposition: In conditions where the rate of urate formation is greatly increased (e.g. malignant disease and its treatment, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome) the absolute concentration of xanthine in urine could, in rare cases, rise sufficiently to allow deposition in the urinary tract. This risk may be minimised by adequate hydration to achieve optimal urine dilution.
Impaction of uric acid renal stones: Adequate therapy with Zyloric will lead to dissolution of large uric acid renal pelvic stones, with the remote possibility of impaction in the ureter.
6 -mercaptopurine and azathioprine:
Azathioprine is metabolised to 6-mercaptopurine which is inactivated by the action of xanthine oxidase. When 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine is given concurrently with Zyloric, only one-quarter of the usual dose of 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine should be given because inhibition of xanthine oxidase will prolong their activity.
Vidarabine (Adenine Arabinoside): Evidence suggests that the plasma half-life of vidarabine is increased in the presence of allopurinol. When the two products are used concomitantly extra vigilance is necessary, to recognise enhanced toxic effects.
Salicylates and uricosuric agents: oxipurinol, the major metabolite of allopurinol and itself therapeutically active, is excreted by the kidney in a similar way to urate. Hence, drugs with uricosuric activity such as probenecid or large doses of salicylate may accelerate the excretion of oxipurinol. This may decrease the therapeutic activity of Zyloric, but the significance needs to be assessed in each case.
Chlorpropamide: If Zyloric is given concomitantly with chlorpropamide when renal function is poor, there may be an increased risk of prolonged hypoglycaemic activity because allopurinol and chlorpropamide may compete for excretion in the renal tubule.
There have been rare reports of increased effect of warfarin and other coumarin anticoagulants when co-administered with allopurinol, therefore, all patients receiving anticoagulants must be carefully monitored.
Phenytoin: Allopurinol may inhibit hepatic oxidation of phenytoin but the clinical significance has not been demonstrated.
Theophylline: Inhibition of the metabolism of theophylline has been reported. The mechanism of the interaction may be explained by xanthine oxidase being involved in the biotransformation of theophylline in man. Theophylline levels should be monitored in patients starting or increasing allopurinol therapy.
Ampicillin/Amoxicillin: An increase in frequency of skin rash has been reported among patients receiving ampicillin or amoxicillin concurrently with allopurinol compared to patients who are not receiving both drugs. The cause of the reported association has not been established. However, it is recommended that in patients receiving allopurinol an alternative to ampicillin or amoxicillin is used where available.
Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, bleomycin, procarbazine, mechloroethamine: Enhanced bone marrow suppression by cyclophosphamide and other cytotoxic agents has been reported among patients with neoplastic disease (other than leukaemia), in the presence of allopurinol. However, in a well-controlled study of patients treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, bleomycin, procarbazine and/or mechloroethamine (mustine hydrochloride) allopurinol did not appear to increase the toxic reaction of these cytotoxic agents.
Cyclosporin: Reports suggest that the plasma concentration of cyclosporin may be increased during concomitant treatment with allopurinol. The possibility of enhanced cyclosporin toxicity should be considered if the drugs are co-administered.
There is inadequate evidence of safety of Zyloric in human pregnancy, although it has been in wide use for many years without apparent ill consequence.
Use in pregnancy only when there is no safer alternative and when the disease itself carries risk for the mother or unborn child.
Reports indicate that allopurinol and oxipurinol are excreted in human breast milk. Concentrations of 1.4mg/litre allopurinol and 53.7 mg/litre oxipurinol have been demonstrated in breast milk from woman taking Zyloric 300 mg/day. However, there are no data concerning the effects of allopurinol or its metabolites on the breast-fed baby.
Since adverse reactions such as somnolence, vertigo and ataxia have been reported in patients receiving allopurinol, patients should exercise caution before driving, using machinery or participating in dangerous activities until they are reasonably certain that allopurinol does not adversely affect performance.
Adverse reactions in association with Zyloric are rare in the overall treated population and mostly of a minor nature. The incidence is higher in the presence of renal and/or hepatic disorder.
Skin and hypersensitivity reactions: These are the most common reactions and may occur at any time during treatment. They may be pruritic, maculopapular, sometimes scaly, sometimes purpuric and rarely exfoliative. Zyloric should be withdrawn immediately should such reactions occur. After recovery from mild reactions, Zyloric may, if desired, be re-introduced at a small dose (e.g. 50mg/day) and gradually increased. If the rash recurs, Zyloric should be permanently withdrawn as more severe hypersensitivity reactions may occur.
Skin reactions associated with exfoliation, fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia and/or eosinophilia including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis occur rarely. Associated vasculitis and tissue response may be manifested in various ways including hepatitis, renal impairment and very rarely, seizures. If such reactions do occur, it may be at any time during treatment, Zyloric should be withdrawn immediately and permanently.
Corticosteroids may be beneficial in overcoming hypersensitivity skin reactions. When generalised hypersensitivity reactions have occurred, renal and/or hepatic disorder has usually been present particularly when the outcome has been fatal.
Very rarely acute anaphylactic shock has been reported.
Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy: Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy has been described rarely following biopsy of a generalised lymphadenopathy. It appears to be reversible on withdrawal of Zyloric.
Hepatic functions: Rare reports of hepatic dysfunction ranging from asymptomatic rises in liver function tests to hepatitis (including hepatic necrosis and granulomatous hepatitis) have been reported without overt evidence of more generalised hypersensitivity.
Gastrointestinal disorder: In early clinical studies, nausea and vomiting were reported. Further reports suggest that this reaction is not a significant problem and can be avoided by taking Zyloric after meals. Recurrent haematemesis has been reported as an extremely rare event, as has steatorrhoea.
Blood and lymphatic system: Occasional reports have been received of thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia, particularly in individuals with impaired renal and/or hepatic function, reinforcing the need for particular care in this group of patients.
Miscellaneous: the following complaints have been reported occasionally; fever, general malaise, asthenia, headache, vertigo, ataxia, somnolence, coma depression, paralysis, paraesthesiae, neuropathy, visual disorder, cataract, macular changes, taste perversion, stomatitis, changed bowel habit, infertility, impotence, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipaemia, furunculosis, alopecia, discoloured hair, angina, hypertension, bradycardia, oedema, uraemia, haematuria, angioedema, gynacomastia.
Ingestion of up to 22.5 g allopurinol without adverse effect has been reported. Symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and dizziness have been reported in a patient who ingested 20 g allopurinol. Recovery followed general supportive measures. Massive absorption of Zyloric may lead to considerable inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity, which should have no untoward effects unless affecting concomitant medication, especially with 6-mercaptopurine and/or azathioprine. Adequate hydration to maintain optimum diuresis facilitates excretion of allopurinol and its metabolites. If considered necessary haemodialysis may be used.
Allopurinol is a xanthine-oxidase inhibitor. Allopurinol and its main metabolite oxipurinol lower the level of uric acid in plasma and urine by inhibition of xanthine oxidase, the enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. In addition to the inhibition of purine catabolism in some but not all hyperuricaemic patients, de novo purine biosynthesis is depressed via feedback inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Other metabolites of allopurinol include allopurinol-riboside and oxipurinol-7 riboside.
Allopurinol is active when given orally and is rapidly absorbed from the upper gastrointestinal tract. Studies have detected allopurinol in the blood 30-60 minutes after dosing. Estimates of bioavailability vary from 67% to 90%. Peak plasma levels of allopurinol generally occur approximately 1.5 hours after oral administration of Zyloric, but fall rapidly and are barely detectable after 6 hours. Peak levels of oxipurinol generally occur after 3-5 hours after oral administration of Zyloric and are much more sustained.
Allopurinol is negligibly bound by plasma proteins and therefore variations in protein binding are not thought to significantly alter clearance. The apparent volume of distribution of allopurinol is approximately 1.6 litre/kg which suggests relatively extensive uptake by tissues. Tissue concentrations of allopurinol have not been reported in humans, but it is likely that allopurinol and oxipurinol will be present in the highest concentrations in the liver and intestinal mucosa where xanthine oxidase activity is high.
Approximately 20% of the ingested allopurinol is excreted in the faeces. Elimination of allopurinol is mainly by metabolic conversion to oxipurinol by xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase, with less than 10% of the unchanged drug excreted in the urine. Allopurinol has a plasma half-life of about 1 to 2 hours.
Oxipurinol is a less potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase than allopurinol, but the plasma half-life of oxipurinol is far more prolonged. Estimates range from 13 to 30 hours in man. Therefore effective inhibition of xanthine oxidase is maintained over a 24 hour period with a single daily dose of Zyloric. Patients with normal renal function will gradually accumulate oxipurinol until a steady-state plasma oxipurinol concentration is reached. Such patients, taking 300 mg of allopurinol per day will generally have plasma oxipurinol concentrations of 5-10 mg/litre.
Oxipurinol is eliminated unchanged in the urine but has a long elimination half-life because it undergoes tubular reabsorption. Reported values for the elimination half-life range from 13.6 hours to 29 hours. The large discrepancies in these values may be accounted for by variations in study design and/or creatinine clearance in the patients.
Pharmacokinetics in patients with renal impairment.
Allopurinol and oxipurinol clearance is greatly reduced in patients with poor renal function resulting in higher plasma levels in chronic therapy. Patients with renal impairment, where creatinine clearance values were between 10 and 20ml/min, showed plasma oxipurinol concentrations of approximately 30mg/litre after prolonged treatment with 300 mg allopurinol per day. This is approximately the concentration which would be achieved by doses of 600 mg/day in those with normal renal function. A reduction in the dose of Zyloric is therefore required in patients with renal impairment.
Pharmacokinetics in elderly patients.
The kinetics of the drug are not likely to be altered other than due to deterioration in renal function (see Pharmocokinetics in patients with renal impairment).