It is now well accepted amongst health professionals that macadamias are an unusually rich source of the "healthy" oils, namely those which, like fish oil, are high in high density lipoproteins.
As stated in an article in the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1995) Vol. 4, No. 3:330 by David M Coquhoun:
Nuts generally are rich sources of monounsaturated fat, predominantly oleic acid. The macadamia nut is the richest diet source of palmitoleic acid. A diet enriched with oleic acid is associated with decreased susceptibility of oxidation of LDL,improvement of fluidity of the HDL which is associated with a greater ability to stimulate cholesterol efflux from cells, and an increase in the fluidity of LDL which decreases the atherogenicity.
Title: Enhancement of propylene glycol distribution in the skin by high purity cis-unsaturated fatty acids with different alkyl chain lengths having different double bond position.
Research abstract on Palmitoleic Acid
Taguchi K ; Fukushima S ; Yamaoka Y ; Takeuchi Y ; Suzuki M
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Japan.
Biol Pharm Bull, 22(4):407-11 1999 Apr
Enhancement of skin distribution of propylene glycol (PG) in the skin by high purity cis-unsaturated fatty acids with different alkyl chain lengths was studied in the rat using Fourier transform/attenuated total reflection (FT-IR/ATR) analysis. Two fatty acids with the double bond at the delta9 position, palmitoleic acid (omega7, delta9) and oleic acid (omega9, delta9), enhanced PG flux into the dermis and increased the dermal steady state level of PG. In contrast, myristoleic acid (omega5, delta9) was extremely weak in its action. A positional effect of the omega chain was observed. The rate of skin structural alteration increased in proportion to omega chain length. The application of three fatty acids with the double bond at the omega9 position, oleic acid (omega9, delta9), gondoic acid (omega9, delta11), erucic acid (omega9, delta13) enhanced PG distribution in the skin. While, nervonic acid (omega9, delta15) did not increase PG distribution in the skin. The relationship of the delta/omega ratio to parameters characterizing the action of enhancers (PG(peak area max), T(max alteration), and the slope) suggest that skin distribution increases as the position of the double bond is shifted toward the hydrophilic end. It is therefore likely that the ratio of the delta/omega chain length of the cis-unsaturated fatty acid determines the efficacy of these compounds as skin penetration enhancers. An adequate molecular volume may be required for cis-unsaturated fatty acids to act as enhancers.
Research abstract on Oleic Acid
Title: Direct vascular antiatherogenic effects of oleic acid: a clue to the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet.
Massaro M ; Carluccio MA ; De Caterina R
Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica del CNR, Pisa.
Cardiologia, 44(6):507-13 1999 Jun
Atherosclerosis, the main cause of ischemic heart disease, is a process with relevant inflammatory components, in which LDL-cholesterol, largely emphasized in the last years as a "causal" factor following the improvement in prognosis with cholesterol-lowering agents, is only one of the culprits. Despite the use of new cholesterol-lowering drugs, atherosclerotic vascular disease will likely continue to be the main cause of death in Western countries. Furthermore, the statistical relationship between cholesterol and cardiovascular mortality only explains a relatively minor component of differences in mortality among diverse countries. For these reasons, the interest in preventive approaches complementary or alternative to cholesterol reduction should be one of the main objectives of cardiovascular research in the years to come. Already in the '70s the very low incidence of atherosclerotic diseases in Mediterranean countries (Greece and Southern Italy) and the importance of the "dietary factor" in such protection were noticed. Diets for people in these countries are, among other components, very rich in oleic acid, the main constituent of olive oil, with about 29% of daily caloric intake derived from monounsaturated fatty acids. Oleic acid, besides exerting relatively minor effects on the quantitative and qualitative regulation of cholesterol levels, appears to interfere directly with the inflammatory response that characterizes early atherogenesis. The endothelial expression of adhesion molecules for circulating monocytes, induced by inflammatory cytokines, minimally oxidized LDL and the advanced glycation end-products present in diabetes, substantially contributes to the onset and early progression of atherosclerosis. In an in vitro model of early atherogenesis based on cultured endothelial cells stimulated by cytokines, we observed that the incorporation of oleic acid in total cell lipids--mostly at the expenses of saturated fatty acids--decreases the expression of several endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules, among which vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, involved in the selective monocyte recruitment in the arterial intima. Oleic acid also determines a parallel reduction in messenger RNA for this molecule, interfering with the activation of the most important transcription factor controlling endothelial activation, nuclear factor-kappa B. Thus, possibly in concert with other more highly unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid may contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis also through a modulation of gene expression for endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules. This series of investigations emphasizes the possibility of preventive interventions in atherosclerosis based on the modulation of vascular response to classical "triggers" (cholesterol, advanced glycation end-products of diabetes), an intervention strategy fundamentally different from--and thereby complementary to--those now more in fashion.
Research abstract on Oleic Acid
Title:Oleic Acid Increases Cell Surface Expression and Activity of CD11b on Human Neutrophils
Anthony M. Mastrangelo,2* Thomas M. Jeitner,3 and John W. Eaton
*Division of Experimental Pathology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208; New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY 12223; and Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030
The Journal of Immunology, 1998, 161: 4268-4275.
Traumatic bone injury frequently results in the release of marrow-derived fatty material into the circulation. This may lead to the syndrome of fat embolism, associated with the generation of free fatty acids, the sequestration of neutrophils in the lungs, and the subsequent development of acute respiratory distress. Neutrophil accumulation in tissues requires their adherence to vascular endothelial cells and involves the 2 integrin, CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1). We now report that the exposure of isolated human neutrophils to oleic acid causes a rapid increase in the cell surface expression and affinity state of CD11b, particularly under acidic conditions that are typical of inflammatory sites. Oleic acid also triggers neutrophil aggregation and neutrophil adherence to both fibrinogen-coated surfaces and confluent cultures of HUVEC. These processes are blocked by CD11b-specific inhibitors, including neutrophil-inhibitory factor and mAbs to CD11b. These observations may help explain the etiology of so-called fat embolism wherein trauma-induced release of fatty material causes pulmonary neutrophil accumulation and the development of acute respiratory distress.
Inositol is found as a component of phospholipids in the brain, skeletal, heart, and male reproductive tissues. It functions in nerve transmission, the regulation of enzyme activity and the transportation of fats within the body. Inositol is essential for hair growth and can prevent some cases of thinning hair and baldness. It helps reduce high cholesterol and is important for the heart. Inositol is also beneficial for the nerves, for the treatment of eye abnormalities, eczema and some cases of obesity.