Hydroxylation of 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by rat prostate microsomes: potent inhibition by imidazole-type antimycotic drugs and lack of inhibition by steroid 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors.
Gemzik B, Parkinson A
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160-7417.
Arch Biochem Biophys, 296: 2, 1992 Aug 1, 366-73
5 alpha-Dihydrotestosterone, the principal androgen mediating prostate growth and function in the rat, is formed from testosterone by steroid 5 alpha-reductase. The inactivation of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone involves reversible reduction to 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by 3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase followed by 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, or 7 beta-hydroxylation. 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation represents the ultimate inactivation step of dihydrotestosterone in rat prostate and is apparently catalyzed by a single, high-affinity (Km approximately 0.5 microM) microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme. The present studies were designed to determine if 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation by rat prostate microsomes is inhibited by agents that are known inhibitors of androgen-metabolizing enzymes. Inhibitors of steroid 5 alpha-reductase (4-azasteroid analogs; 10 microM) or inhibitors of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (trilostane, azastene, and cyanoketone; 10 microM) had no appreciable effect on the 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, or 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol (10 microM) by rat prostate microsomes. Imidazole-type antimycotic drugs (ketoconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole; 0.1-10 microM) all markedly inhibited 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas triazole-type antimycotic drugs (fluconazole and itraconazole; 0.1-10 microM) had no inhibitory effect. The rank order of inhibitory potency of the imidazole-type antimycotic drugs was miconazole greater than clotrimazole greater than ketoconazole. In the case of clotrimazole, the inhibition was shown to be competitive in nature, with a Ki of 0.03 microM. The imidazole-type antimycotic drugs inhibited all three pathways of 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation to the same extent, which provides further evidence that, in rat prostate microsomes, a single cytochrome P450 enzyme catalyzes the 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol. These studies demonstrate that certain imidazole-type compounds are potent, competitive inhibitors of 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation by rat prostate microsomes, which is consistent with the effect of these antimycotic drugs on cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of other androgens and steroids.
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