sanofi-aventis


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Document last updated on the eMC: Wed 28 June 2006
Acomplia 20 mg film-coated tablets
Table of Contents

1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1 Therapeutic indications

4.2 Posology and method of administration

4.3 Contraindications

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

4.6 Pregnancy and lactation

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

4.8 Undesirable effects

4.9 Overdose

5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

5.3 Preclinical safety data

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients

6.2 Incompatibilities

6.3 Shelf life

6.4 Special precautions for storage

6.5 Nature and contents of container

6.6 Instructions for use, handling and disposal

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER

8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)

9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

Legal category:



1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT  


2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION  

Each tablet contains 20 mg rimonabant.

Excipients:

The tablets contain approx. 115 mg lactose.

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.


3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM  

Film-coated tablet

Biconvex, teardrop-shaped, white tablets debossed with “20” on one side.


4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS  


4.1 Therapeutic indications  



4.2 Posology and method of administration  

In adults, the recommended dosage is one 20 mg tablet daily to be taken in the morning before breakfast.

The treatment should be introduced with a mildly reduced calorie diet.

The safety and efficacy of rimonabant have not been evaluated beyond 2 years.

• Special Populations

Elderly:

No dosage adjustment is required in elderly (see section 5.2). ACOMPLIA should be used with caution in patients over 75 years of age (see section 4.4).

Patients with hepatic insufficiency:

No dosage adjustment is required for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. ACOMPLIA should be used with caution in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. ACOMPLIA should not be used in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section 4.4 and 5.2).

Patients with renal impairment:

No dosage adjustment is required for patients with mild and moderaterenal impairment (see section 5.2). ACOMPLIA should not be used in patients with severe renal impairment (see section 4.4 and 5.2).

Paediatrics:

ACOMPLIA is not recommended for use in children below age 18 due to a lack of data on efficacy and safety.



4.3 Contraindications  

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients

Lactation.



4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use  

Rimonabant is metabolised by the liver, thus caution is advised in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. The pharmacokinetics and safety of rimonabant have not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment; its use in these patients is not recommended.

There are limited data in patients with moderate renal impairment and no data in patients with severe renal impairment. Rimonabant should not be used in patients with severe renal impairment (see section 4.2 and 5.2).

The efficacy and safety of rimonabant treatment in patients over 75 years of age has not sufficiently been established. Rimonabant should be used with caution in this population (see section 5.2).

Rimonabant has not been studied in patients being treated for epilepsy. In clinical trials no difference in the incidence of seizures was seen in patients receiving rimonabant or placebo. Rimonabant, however, should be used with caution in these patients, see also section 5.3.

The clinical effect (weight loss) of rimonabant in Black patients was lower than in Caucasians. This could be caused by a higher rimonabant clearance than in Caucasians resulting in a lower exposure (see section 5.2).

Rimonabant should be used with caution in combination with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir, telithromycin, clarithromycin, nefazodone)(see section 4.5).

Since ACOMPLIA tablets contain lactose, patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption, should not take this medicine.

Patients should be instructed not to increase their dose of ACOMPLIA.

Obesity is a condition that can be associated with depression or other psychiatric conditions. Depressive disorders have been reported in patients receiving rimonabant 20 mg (see section 4.8).

Therapy with rimonabant should not be initiated in patients with uncontrolled serious psychiatric illness such as a major depression. Appropriate treatment of this condition should be initiated first and therapy with rimonabant considered once this psychiatric condition is controlled.

As there is limited data in patients with antidepressant medication in combination with rimonabant, use of rimonabant is not recommended in these patients.

Patients who had a cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke, etc.) less than 6 months ago were excluded in the studies for rimonabant.



4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction  

Rimonabant is metabolized by both CYP3A and amidohydrolase (predominantly hepatic) pathways in vitro. Co-administration of CYP3A4 inhibitors will lead to increased exposure of rimonabant. Co-administration of CYP3A4 inducers is expected to reduce the exposure of rimonabant.

Potential for other medicinal products to affect rimonabant:

Concomitant administration of ketoconazole (apotent CYP3A4 inhibitor) increased rimonabant AUC by 104% (95% prediction interval: 40% - 197%). A similar increase in exposure is expected with other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors. Caution is advised during concomitant use of ACOMPLIA and potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir, telithromycin, clarithromycin, nefazodone).

Although concomitant administration of CYP3A4 inducers (e.g. rifampicin, phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, St John's wort) has not been studied, it is expected that concomitant administration of potent CYP3A4 inducers may reduce the plasma concentration of rimonabant and may result in loss of efficacy.

Co-administration of orlistat, ethanol or lorazepam had no significant effect on the plasma levels of rimonabant.

Potential for rimonabant to affect other medicinal products:

The in vivo inhibitory effect on CYP2C8 has not been studied. However, in vitro, rimonabant had a mild inhibitory effect on CYP2C8. The potential for inhibition of CYP2C8 in vivo appears to be low.Rimonabant does not inhibit or induce other CYP enzymes or P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro. This was confirmed clinically with specific probe studies using midazolam (CYP 3A4 substrate) and warfarin (CYP 2C9 substrate) and digoxin (a P-gp substrate).

The steady-state pharmacokinetics of an ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel combination oral contraceptive were not significantly altered by concomitant administration of rimonabant.



4.6 Pregnancy and lactation  

There are no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Animal data are inconclusive but suggest possible deleterious effects on embryonal/foetal development(see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown.Use in pregnancy is, therefore, not recommended. Patients should notify their physician if they become pregnant during treatment with ACOMPLIA.

Rimonabant has been detected in the milk of lactating ratsand rimonabant may inhibit the suckling reflex. It is not known if rimonabant is excreted in human milk. ACOMPLIA is contraindicated during breast-feeding (see section 4.3).



4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines  

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed.

Cognitive investigations in clinical pharmacology studies demonstrated that rimonabant is devoid of any significant cognitive or sedative effect.



4.8 Undesirable effects  

ACOMPLIA 20 mg has been evaluated for safety in approximately 2500 patients enrolled in studies that examined the metabolic and weight loss effects in overweight and obese patients and in approximately 3800 patients in other indications. In placebo-controlled studies, the discontinuation rate due to adverse reactions was 15.7 % for patients receiving rimonabant. The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation were: nausea, mood alteration with depressive symptoms, depressive disorders, anxiety and dizziness.

Depressive disorders were reported in 3.2% of obese patients, or overweight patients with associated risk factor(s) treated with rimonabant 20 mg. These were usually mild or moderate in severity and resulted in recovery in all cases either after corrective treatment or discontinuation of rimonabant and did not exhibit any differentiating characteristics compared to cases reported in the control groups.

Classification of expected frequencies of undesirable effects:

Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

System Organ

Class

Very common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Infections and infestations

Upper respiratory tract infection

Gastroenteritis

 

 

Psychiatric disorders

 

Depressive disorders

Mood alterations with depressive symptoms

Anxiety

Irritability

Nervousness

Sleep disorders

Insomnia

Parasomnias

 

Panic symptoms

Anger

Dysphoria

Emotional disorder

Hallucinations

Nervous system disorders

 

Memory loss

Dizziness

 

Hypoaesthesia

Sciatica

Lethargy

 

 

Vascular disorders

 

Hot flush

 

 

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

 

Hiccups

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

Nausea

Diarrhoea

Vomiting

 

 

 

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

Pruritus

Hyperhidrosis

 

Night sweats

 

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

 

Tendonitis

Muscle cramp

Muscle spasms

 

 

General disorders

 

Asthenia/fatigue

Influenza

 

 

Injury, Poisoning and procedural complications

 

Fall

Contusion

Joint sprain

 

 

 

In clinical studies for other indications, the following additional adverse reactions were commonly reported:

− infections and infestations: sinusitis

− metabolism and nutrition disorders: anorexia, decreased appetite

− nervous system disorders: disturbance in attention

− gastrointestinal disorders: stomach discomfort, dry mouth.

Laboratory adverse events

ACOMPLIA has not been shown to alter laboratory test values.



4.9 Overdose  

Experience with rimonabant in overdosage is limited. In a single-dose tolerability study, doses up to 300 mg were administered to a limited number of subjects with only minor symptoms reported. These included headache, euphoria, fatigue and insomnia. The pharmacokinetic profile demonstrates that a plateau in exposures is reached at 180 mg. There is no specific antidote for rimonabant; therefore, appropriate supportive measures should be initiated in case of overdose. Treatment should consist of the general measures employed in the management of overdoses, such as keeping airways unobstructed, monitoring cardiovascular function and general symptomatic and supportive measures.


5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES  


5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties  

Pharmaco-therapeutic group: {not yet assigned}

ATC code: {not yet assigned }

Rimonabant is a selective cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1) antagonist that inhibits the pharmacological effects of cannabinoid agonists in vitro and in vivo.

The endocannabinoid system is a physiological system present in brain and peripheral tissues (including adipocytes) that affects energy balance, glucose and lipid metabolism and body weight, and in neurons of the mesolimbic system modulates the intake of highly palatable, sweet or fatty foods.

Clinical study results

Weight Management

Significant mean weight reductions from baseline to one year for ACOMPLIA 20 mg versus placebo were demonstrated in three studies conducted in non-diabetic patients. A mean weight loss of 6.5 kg from baseline to one year was shown for ACOMPLIA 20 mg versus a mean weight loss of 1.6 kg for placebo (Difference -4.9 kg CI95% -5.3;-4.4, p< 0.001). In a trial enrolling type 2 diabetics, at one year a mean weight loss of 5.3 kg was shown for ACOMPLIA 20 mg versus a loss on placebo of 1.4 kg (Difference –3.9 kg CI95% -4.6;-3.3, p<0.001).

The percentage of patients who lost 5% and 10% of their baseline body weight after 1 year of treatment are given below:

 

Non-diabetic studies

Diabetic study

 

Placebo

ACOMPLIA

20 mg

Placebo

ACOMPLIA

20 mg

nITT

1254

2164

348

339

 

Weight at baseline (kg)

101

101

96

95

Subjects with a 5% weight reduction

19.7%

50.8%

14.5%

49.4%

 

Difference (CI 95% )

31.1% (28%; 34%)

34.9% (28%; 41%)

 

Subjects with a 10% weight reduction

7.8%

27.0%

2.0%

16.2%

Difference (CI 95% )

19.2% (17%; 22%)

14.2% (10%; 19%)

 

Most of the observed weight reduction was obtained within the first nine months of treatment. ACOMPLIA 20 mg was effective in maintaining weight loss up to two years. Weight loss at two years was 5.1 kg for patients who received ACOMPLIA 20 mg and 1.2 kg for placebo (Difference -3.8 kg; CI95% -4.4, -3.3; p<0.001).

Rimonabant 20 mg reduced the risk of weight regain. Patients who received ACOMPLIA 20 mg for one year were re-randomized to ACOMPLIA 20 mg or placebo. At two years, patients continuing on rimonabant had a mean total weight loss of 7.5 kg over 2 years whereas patients re-randomized to placebo group during the second year had a mean total weight loss of 3.1 kg over 2 years. At two years, the difference in total weight loss between ACOMPLIA and placebo was -4.2 kg (CI95% -5.0;-3.4, p<0.001).

Treatment with rimonabant was associated with significant reductions in waist circumference, a known marker of intra-abdominal fat.

The effects on body weight appeared to be consistent among men and women. In the limited number of Black patients weight loss was less pronounced (mean difference to placebo -2.9 kg). No conclusions can be drawn with regard to effects in patients over 75 years or in Asian/Oriental patients due to the low number of patients.

Weight management and additional risk factors

In the non-diabetic studies including a mixed population of subjects with/without (treated) dyslipidemia, an increase in HDL-C and decrease in triglycerides (at one year) was observed. For HDL-C an average increase of 16.4% was seen under rimonabant 20 mg (baseline HDL-C 1.24 mmol/l) compared to an increase of 8.9% for placebo (baseline HDL-C 1.21 mmol/l). The difference was statistically significant (Difference 7.9% CI95% 6.6%; 9.2%, p<0.001). For the triglycerides an average decrease of 6.9% was seen under rimonabant 20 mg (baseline TG 1.62 mmol/l) compared to an increase of 5.8% for placebo (baseline TG 1.65 mmol/l). The difference was statistically significant (Difference -13.3% CI95% -16.5; -10.2% p<0.001). It is estimated that approximately half of the observed improvement in HDL-C and triglycerides in patients who received rimonabant 20 mg was beyond that expected from weight loss alone.

Generally ACOMPLIA 20 mg had no significant effect on Total-C or LDL-C levels.

In the trial in type 2 diabetic patients who were overweight or obese treated with metformin or sulfonylurea an improvement in HbA1c was observed. The absolute change in HbA1c at one year was -0.6 for rimonabant 20 mg (baseline 7.2%) and +0.1 under placebo (baseline 7.3%). Differences were statistically significant (difference of -0.7%, CI95% -0.80;-0.5, p<0.001). Changes in HDL-C and TG in this population were similar to that of the non-diabetic population. It is estimated that approximately half of the mean improvement in HbA1c in patients receiving rimonabant 20 mg was beyond that expected from weight loss alone.



5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties  

Rimonabant pharmacokinetics are fairly dose proportional up to about 20 mg. AUC increased less than in proportion to dose above 20 mg.

Absorption:

Rimonabant displays high in vitro permeability and is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein. The absolute bioavailability of rimonabant has not been determined. Following multiple once-daily doses of 20 mg to healthy subjects in the fasted state, maximum plasma concentrations of rimonabant are achieved in approximately 2 hours with steady state plasma levels achieved within 13 days (Cmax = 196 ± 28.1 ng/ml; Ctrough = 91.6 ± 14.1 ng/ml; AUC0-24 = 2960 ± 268 ng.h/ml). Steady state rimonabant exposures are 3.3-fold higher than those observed after the first dose. Population pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated less fluctuation in peak to trough plasma concentration but no differences in steady state AUC as weight increases. As weight increases from 65 to 200 kg, Cmax is expected to decrease 24% and Ctrough is expected to increase by 5%. Time to steady state is longer in obese patients (25 days) as a consequence of the higher volume of distributionin these patients. Population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that rimonabant pharmacokinetics are similar between healthy non-smoking subjects and patients who smoke.

Effect of food:

Administration of rimonabant to healthy subjects in the fasted state or with a high fat meal demonstrated that Cmax and AUC were increased 67% and 48% respectively, under fed conditions. In clinical studies, ACOMPLIA 20 mg was taken in the morning usually before breakfast.

Distribution:

The in vitro human plasma protein binding of rimonabant is high (>99.9%) and non-saturable over a wide concentration range. The apparent peripheral volume of distribution of rimonabant appears to be related to body weight, with obese patients having a higher volume of distribution than normal-weight subjects.

Biotransformation:

Rimonabant is metabolized by both CYP3A and amidohydrolase (predominantly hepatic) pathways in vitro. Circulating metabolites do not contribute to its pharmacologic activity.

Elimination:

Rimonabant is mainly eliminated by metabolism and subsequent biliary excretion of metabolites.Only an approximate 3% of the dose of rimonabant is eliminated in the urine, while approximately 86% of the dose is excreted in the faeces as unchanged drug and metabolites. In obese patients, the elimination half-life is longer (about 16 days) than in non-obese patients (about 9days) due to a larger volume of distribution.

Special Populations

Race:

In single- and repeat-dose studies, the Cmax and AUC of rimonabant were similar in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects, whereas elimination half-life was shorter in Japanese subjects (3-4 days) compared to Caucasian subjects (about 9 days). The difference in half-life was due to differences in peripheral volume of distribution as a consequence of lower weight in Japanese subjects.

Black patients may have up to a 31% lower Cmax and a 43% lower AUC than patients of other races.

Gender:

The pharmacokinetics of rimonabant are similar in female and male patients.

Elderly:

Elderly patients have slightly higher exposure than young patients. Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis (age range 18 - 81 years) a 75 year old patient is estimated to have a 21% higher Cmax and a 27% higher AUC than a 40 year old patient.

Patients with hepatic insufficiency:

Mild hepatic impairment does not alter rimonabant exposure. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding pharmacokinetics in moderate hepatic impairment.Patients with severe hepatic impairment were not evaluated.

Patients with renal impairment:

The effect of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of rimonabant has not been studied specifically.

Based on data from population pharmacokinetic studies, mild renal impairment do not seem to affect the pharmacokinetics of rimonabant. Limited data suggest an increased exposure in patients with moderate renal impairment (40% increase in AUC). There are no data in severe renal impairment.



5.3 Preclinical safety data  

Adverse reactions not observed in clinical studies, but seen in animals at exposure levels similar to clinical exposure levels and with possible relevance to clinical use were as follows:

Convulsions were observed sporadically in studies in rodents and macaques. No convulsions were observed in dogs during a 3 month study. In some, but not all cases, initiation of convulsions appeared to be associated with procedural stress such as handling of the animals. A proconvulsant activity of rimonabant was found in one of two safety pharmacology studies. No adverse effect of rimonabant treatment was observed on EEG patterns in rats.

Increased incidence and/or severity of clinical signs suggestive of increased tactile hyperesthesia were observed in rodent studies. A direct effect of rimonabant cannot be ruled out.

Liver steatosis and a dose-related increase in centrilobular necrosis were observed in long-term studies in the rat. A direct effect of rimonabant cannot be ruled out.

In standard fertility studies in female rats (dosing for 2 weeks prior to mating) there was abnormal oestrous cyclicity and a decrease in corpora lutea and fertility index at doses of rimonabant that induced maternal toxicity (30 and 60 mg/kg/day). Following dosing for a longer treatment duration prior to mating (9 weeks) that permitted recovery from the initial effects of rimonabant, no adverse effects were seen on fertility or oestrous cyclicity. Regarding reproductive parameters, at 30 mg/kg no differences were observed between treated animals and controls, at 60 mg/kg effects were still observed (decreased number of corpora lutea, implantations, total and viable fetuses).

Sporadic malformations (anencephaly, micro-ophthalmia, widened brain ventricles and omphalocele) were observed in the rabbit embryofetal toxicity studies at doses resulting in exposures comparable with the clinical exposures. Although maternal toxicity was observed at these doses, a relation to treatment cannot be excluded. No treatment-related malformations were seen in the rat.

Effects of rimonabant on pre- and post-natal development were assessed in the rat at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day. There was a treatment related increase in pup mortality in the pre-weaning period. The increased pup mortality might be attributable to a failure of the dam to nurse or ingestion of rimonabant in milk and/or inhibition of the suckling reflex that is reported in the literature to be initiated in neonatal mice by endocannabinoid signalling via CB1 receptors. There are reports in the literature that, in both rodents and humans, the spatial distribution and density of CB1 receptors in the brain changes during development. The potential relevance of this to administration of a CB1 antagonist is unknown. In the pre- and post-natal development study in rats, exposure to rimonabant in utero and via lactation produced no alterations on learning or memory, but equivocal effects on motor activity and auditory startle response were observed in the pups as a result of rimonabant exposure.


6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS  


6.1 List of excipients  

Tablet core:

maize starch,

lactose monohydrate,

povidone K 30 (E1201),

croscarmellose sodium (E468),

sodium laurilsulfate (E487),

microcrystalline cellulose (E460),

magnesium stearate

Tablet coating:

lactose monohydrate,

hypromellose 15 mPa.s (E464),

titanium dioxide (E171),

macrogol 3000

Tablet polishing:

carnauba wax (E903)



6.2 Incompatibilities  

Not applicable



6.3 Shelf life  

2 years



6.4 Special precautions for storage  

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.



6.5 Nature and contents of container  

PVC-aluminium blister packs containing 28 film-coated tablets.



6.6 Instructions for use, handling and disposal  

No special requirements


7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER  

sanofi-aventis.

174 Avenue de France

F-75013 Paris

France


8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)  

EU/1/06/344/002


9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION  

June 2006


10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT  

June 2006



Legal category:  

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